PCBs and other chemical carcinogens in the environment

  • 0.53 MB
  • English
Legislative Service, New York State Library , Albany, N.Y
Polychlorinated biphenyls -- Bibliography., Carcinogens -- Bibliography., Environmental toxicology -- Bibliogr
Other titlesSpotlight PCBs & other chemical, Spotlight PCBs and other chemical
Statement[compilation by Marilyn Gehr [and] the staff of Sciences/Health Sciences/Technology Service].
SeriesSpotlight, Spotlight (Albany, N.Y.)
ContributionsNew York State Library. Legislative Service, New York State Library. Sciences/Health Sciences/Technology Service
The Physical Object
Pagination[2] p. ;
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL22237421M

Other fish eat the bottom dwellers and also accumulate PCBs in their systems (Ross, ). Although fish can metabolize some PCBs, the organic pollutants not metabolized or excreted instead accumulate in the fish’s fatty tissues (Ross, ).

The half-life of PCBs are long in comparison to other chemical compounds (Kris-Etherton et al., ). human carcinogens. Chloroform, DDT, formaldehyde, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are examples of possible human carcinogens.

Getting cancer from a chemical depends on the following: •The kind of chemical you were exposed to, •How much of the chemical you were in contact with, •How long the contact lasted, •How often you were exposed.

PCBs are Initiators and Promoters of Carcinogenesis. The process of carcinogenesis in many, if not all, tissues involves at least two stages, initiation and promotion, based on observations originally seen in mouse skin and later demonstrated in other tissues [32,33].Mechanistically, an initiator has been defined as an agent which irreversibly alters the DNA sequence (i.e.

a genotoxic Cited by: This chapter provides an overview of PCBs in the environment as a background to understanding their history of use, sources of input to the environment, distribution in the environment, and their human health and ecological e PCBs are such complex chemicals, knowledge of their chemical and physical properties is needed to understand their transport, fate, and toxicity.

PCBs can degrade or breakdown in the environment, but the process greatly depends on the chemical makeup of the PCBs. The degrading process also depends on where the PCBs are in the environment. Typically, PCBs are either broken down in the.

CHAPTER 9: Environmental Chemical Contaminants and Pesticides This guidance represents the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) current thinking on this topic. It does not create or confer. PCBs cause cancer There is broad agreement from multiple government agencies that PCBs are likely to cause cancer in people (ATSDR ).

While agencies use different labels to describe the human cancer risk, ranging from “probable” or “probably,” to “reasonably anticipated,” the message is the same -- PCBs are expected to cause cancer in people.

Polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs, are a group of man-made compounds that generally occur as complex mixtures.

PCBs are very persistent, lasting for decades in the environment. Like other persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals, PCBs move easily between air, water, and land. @article{osti_, title = {Chemical carcinogens.

Second edition}, author = {Searle, C E}, abstractNote = {This book looks at the latest research in chemical carcinogenic agents. To gain an understanding these agents and their importance in identifying the occupational and environmental causes of cancer.

Chemical carcinogens include carbon electrophiles, which attack DNA. Examples of carbon electrophiles are mustard gas, some alkenes, aflatoxin, and benzo[a]pyrene.

Cooking and processing foods can produce carcinogens. Grilling or frying food, in particular, can produce carcinogens such as acrylamide (in french fries and potato chips) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (in grilled meat).

Download PCBs and other chemical carcinogens in the environment PDF

This congressionally mandated publication identifies agents, substances, mixtures, or exposures (collectively called “substances”) in the environment that may cause cancer in humans. The edition lists 62 known human carcinogens and includes descriptions of the process for preparing the science-based report and the criteria used to list.

Carcinogen, any of a number of agents that can cause cancer in humans. They can be divided into three major categories: chemical carcinogens (including those from biological sources), physical carcinogens, and oncogenic (cancer-causing) viruses.

Most carcinogens, singly or in combination, produce. These chemical properties, however, also contribute to the persistence of PCBs after they are released into the environment.

Because of evidence that PCBs persist in the environment and cause harmful effects, domestic manufacture of commercial mixtures was stopped in ; existing PCBs, however, continue in use. Table 1–2 shows some. Start studying APES Chapter Environmental Health and Toxicology.

Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C 12 H 10−x Cl lorinated biphenyls were once widely deployed as dielectric and coolant fluids in electrical apparatus, carbonless copy paper and in heat transfer fluids.

Because of their longevity, PCBs are still widely in use, even though their manufacture has declined drastically since the s Chemical formula: C₁₂H10−xClₓ.

Description PCBs and other chemical carcinogens in the environment FB2

PCBs have been used in many different products, including electrical equipment, surface coatings, inks, adhesives, flame-retardants, and paints. PCBs may be released into the environment, for instance when waste that contains PCBs is incinerated or stored in landfills.

About 10% of the PCBs produced since still remain in the environment today. Start studying Book- Chapter Environmental Hazards and Human Health. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

PCBs tend to build up in living organisms both by uptake from the environment over time (bioaccumulation) and along the food chain (biomagnification).PCBs remain stored in fatty tissues much more than in muscles or other body parts.

The degree of PCB bioaccumulation over time depends on how quickly they are taken up and eliminated by the organism, and on the ability of the organism to. A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes.

Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles, which they. What Are PCBs. Polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs, are a family of more than chemical compounds ("congeners"), each of which consists of two benzene rings and from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms.

They range from light, oily fluids to heavier, greasy or waxy substances. PCBs were discovered over years ago, but their production and commercial use began in   DHHS concluded that PCBs are reasonably anticipated to be carcinogenic in humans, based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals.

In February26 experts from 12 countries met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France, to reassess the carcinogenicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

Details PCBs and other chemical carcinogens in the environment PDF

Conversely, the epigenetic bases for tumor promotion by non-mutagenic or weakly mutagenic animal carcinogens, such as the PCBs, dioxins, and other persistent organic pollutants, are but poorly understood. What is known is that tumor-promoting activity is a property shared by a wide variety of chemical substances.

Inthe International Agency for Research on Cancer classified dioxin-like PCBs as human carcinogens. This postcard of the Monsanto factory in. A new approach to assessing the cancer risk from environmental polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) considers both toxicity and environmental processes to make distinctions among environmental mixtures.

New toxicity information from a cancer study of four commercial mixtures strengthens the case that all PCB mixtures can cause cancer, although Cited by: Guidelines for Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures Work on the Guidelines for the Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures began in January Draft guidelines were developed by Agency work groups composed of expert scientists from throughout the Agency.

The drafts were peer-reviewed by expert scientists in the fields of toxicology. The things that can give you cancer – the full list benzene and other solvents, Both coal tar and coal-tar pitch contain many chemical compounds, including carcinogens such as Author: Aisha Gani.

Chemical and Physical Carcinogenesis: Advances and Perspectives for the s1 Curtis C. Harris2 Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, N1H, Bethesda, Maryland Abstract Carcinogenesis is a multistage process driven by carcinogen-induced genetic and epigenetic damage in susceptible cells that gain a selectiveCited by:   Cancer is often perceived as largely due to inherited defective genes.

However, the biggest cause of human cancer is exposure to chemicals and indeed, the biggest contributors to the burden of human cancer (estimated to be about 90% of all cancers) are chemicals contained within tobacco smoke, the diet and the environment.

Chemical carcinogenesis is. Abstract. There are many ways by which to define “environmental” carcinogens. Here the epithet “environmental” is taken to cover any unwanted, environmentally derived chemicals that enter the human body via food, drink or air and that have been shown to cause, or are suspected of causing, cancer in humans and/or experimental animals.

[11] PCBs tend to change in the body and in the environment from more highly-chlorinated to lower-chlorinated forms, increasing their estrogenic effects.

Immune system and thyroid effects. In a study of adolescents Mohawk males in New York State, PCBs were shown to upset the balance of thyroid hormones, which may affect growth as well as. Unfortunately, PCBs break down slowly and are drawn to the molecules of living animals, so they’ve worked their way into the food web, as well.

Orcas are apex predators—they sit at the top of the food web. They eat fish, sea lions, seals, sharks and whales, and have no natural predators. So, carcinogens build up in their blubber. This volume will provide a contemporary account of advances in chemical carcinogenesis. It will promote the view that it is chemical alteration of the DNA that is a route cause of many cancers.

The multi-stage model of chemical carcinogenesis, exposure to major classes of human carcinogens and their mode-of-action will be a focal point. The balance between metabolic activation to form 2/5(2).1. Most chemical carcinogens are mutagens 2.

Most carcinogens and mutagens are strong electrophilic reactants. 3 Ionizing or ultraviolet radiation and most chemical carcinogens cause3. Ionizing or ultraviolet radiation and most chemical carcinogens cause lesions in DNA.

4. Defects in DNA repair capacity are associated with a high risk of Size: 2MB.